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Reading skills - HEAVY BREATHER


Klausimas #1


Read the text and complete its summary below

HEAVY BREATHER

     Elephant seals may be big and ugly, but they hold world records for lung power. Mike Fedak from the British sea mammals research unit at St Andrews has discovered that Antarctic elephant seals can dive to 1.800 metres and stay underwater for up to two hours.
     He told the British Association Science Festival, which opened in Leeds last week, that sensors tagged* to the seals could follow them across the sea, recording speed, depth and temperature.
    The seals typically dived for about 30 minutes. 'A seal can be away for half an hour or an hour, come to the surface for two or three minutes and do that again, and carry out that behaviour for weeks, and in some cases months at a time,' Professor Fedak said.
     How a warm blooded sea mammal could survive dives of such duration and depth was a mystery. The seals seemed to be able to slow their heartbeat rate from 120 a minute to one a minute, and 'shut down' the circulation of everything except the blood to the brain.
     In some cases, the seals might have been taking a nap*, at depths too great for their enemies, killer whales and sharks. But often they were feeding, which required effort. Scientists could estimate* the amount of oxygen they took below with them, and the rate at which it could be spent - and the seals seemed to be staying down for longer than the budget should allow.
     'They are using a set of tricks that we all can do'. People, when they fall in cold water, can survive for apparently ridiculous amounts of time. There are people who have stayed under water, resting quietly, for 15 to 17 minutes," said Prof Fedak.
     'Seals have refined these tools to a very high degree,' he said. 'I know of no other animal that controls its circulation as well as seals do.'
     Seals may hold the duration records, but Tony Martin, also of the sea mammals unit, told the festival that the beluga whales of the Arctic broke all records for risky navigation. They could stay under water for only about 20 minutes - but had learned to make huge journeys under polar ice 10m thick by finding tiny, transient* holes in the summer ice. Satellite tracking studies of tagged whales were beginning to show clues.
     One whale was out in ice covered deep ocean, diving to 1.000m under the ice - a region where there was no food. Professor Martin said. 'I think they must be using these deep dives to search the underside of the ice for the next breathing site'.
     'I think they are diving down, and allowing themselves to look up, metaphorically, to a large piece of ice. They have an amazing ability to pick out a particular noise. I think they must be listening to a splash of water against the ice. That sound will only happen where you have got air.'
 
tagged - attached; take a nap - have a short sleep; estimate -calculate; transient - moving

Fill in the gaps with proper words that suit the content of the text. The words should not be necessarily taken from the text. Use one or two words only.


Summary

     A British scientist from a research unit at St Andrews has discovered that Antarctic elephant seals have highly developed
     The seals demonstrate an amazing ability to very deep and remain for a long time.
     It seems to be possible because of their capability to regulate their rate and their system.
     Due to this control the seals use a much smaller amount of  than that which is necessary to survive according to the  of the scientists.
     Another among the sea animals can be the beluga whale of the Arctic which breaks all for risky and long-lasting swimming under a thick polar ice, being capable to stay under water for only less than half an hour.
     These whales manage to find the next place in the underside of the ice by listening to the particular of water where there is .
 

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